An ammonia molecule

Ammonia is a compound with formula NH3.

Chemical properties[edit | edit source]

  • Ammonium salts react with alkalines to form ammonia, water and a salt.
  • Ammonia plus hydrogen chloride gas forms a white solid.
  • Ammonia turns red litmus paper blue
  • Ammonia does not burn in air
  • Ammonia is very soluble in water

Physical Properties[edit | edit source]

  • Gas at RTP
  • Pungent, characteristic smell

Identifying metal ions with ammonia[edit | edit source]

The first arrow is what happens with a few drops NH3(aq). The second arrow is what happens with excess NH3(aq).

  • Cu2+ --> gelatinous blue precipitate --> deep blue solution
  • Fe2+ --> dirty green ppt. --> ppt. remains
  • Fe3+ --> rusty brown ppt. --> ppt. remains
  • Al3+ --> white ppt. --> ppt. remains
  • Zn2+ --> white ppt. --> ppt. dissolves (colourless solution)
  • Ca2+ --> faint white ppt. --> ppt. remains

Manufacture of Ammonia (1)[edit | edit source]

Ammonia is made in the lab by adding an ammonium salt to an alkali.

Manufacture of Ammonia (2)[edit | edit source]

Ammonia is made industrially by the Haber process.

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