Ammonia is a compound with formula NH3.
Chemical properties[edit | edit source]
- Ammonium salts react with alkalines to form ammonia, water and a salt.
- Ammonia plus hydrogen chloride gas forms a white solid.
- Ammonia turns red litmus paper blue
- Ammonia does not burn in air
- Ammonia is very soluble in water
Physical Properties[edit | edit source]
- Gas at RTP
- Pungent, characteristic smell
Identifying metal ions with ammonia[edit | edit source]
The first arrow is what happens with a few drops NH3(aq). The second arrow is what happens with excess NH3(aq).
- Cu2+ --> gelatinous blue precipitate --> deep blue solution
- Fe2+ --> dirty green ppt. --> ppt. remains
- Fe3+ --> rusty brown ppt. --> ppt. remains
- Al3+ --> white ppt. --> ppt. remains
- Zn2+ --> white ppt. --> ppt. dissolves (colourless solution)
- Ca2+ --> faint white ppt. --> ppt. remains
Manufacture of Ammonia (1)[edit | edit source]
Ammonia is made in the lab by adding an ammonium salt to an alkali.
Manufacture of Ammonia (2)[edit | edit source]
Ammonia is made industrially by the Haber process.