Latin nouns are in five declensions. (See also Greek nouns)

They are divided into six cases, the nominative, the vocative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, and the ablative. The nominative is used for the subject noun (in the sentence the dog ruled over the cat, the dog would be in the nominative). The vocative case is used if someone is being called (in the sentence the dog shouted "Cat!" the cat would be in the vocative case). The accusative case is used for the object noun (in the sentence the dog ruled over the cat, the cat would be in the accusative case). The genitive case is used for possessive nouns (in the sentence the claws of the cat could not harm the dog, the cat would be in the genitive). The dative case is used in expressions involving "to", "for" or with the gerundive (in the sentence the dog went to the couch, the couch would be in the dative case, in the sentence, the dog called for the couch, the couch would be in the dative and in the sentence it is necessary for the dog to be on the couch, the dog would be in the dative case). The ablative case has many uses, notably including place, time, "from" phrases, "with" phrases, means and in ablative absolute constructions.

First declension[edit | edit source]

Nouns like mensa (mind) and puella (girl) are first declension nouns. The stem of these nouns is formed by taking a off the nominative form of the noun, e.g. mens and puell. The endings are then added on to this stem. All declension guides will be given in the following order; nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative. It is most commonly demonstrated using the word puella, and is as follows;


Singular

  • Puella
  • Puella
  • Puellam
  • Puellae
  • Puellae
  • Puella

Plural

  • Puellae
  • Puellae
  • Puellas
  • Puellarum
  • Puellis
  • Puellis

Second Declension[edit | edit source]

The second declension is usually shown using the word colonus (farmer), and is as follows;

Singular

  • Colonus
  • Colone
  • Colonum
  • Coloni
  • Colono
  • Colono

Plural

  • Coloni
  • Coloni
  • Colonos
  • Colonorum
  • Colonis
  • Colonis

Third Declension[edit | edit source]

The third declension is usually demonstrated using the word rex (king), and is as follows;

Singular

  • Rex
  • Rex
  • Regem
  • Regis
  • Regi
  • Rege

Plural

  • Reges
  • Reges
  • Reges
  • Regum
  • Regibus
  • Regibus

Fourth Declension[edit | edit source]

The fourth declension can be demonstrated using the word manus (hand/band (of men)), and is as follows;

Singular

  • Manus
  • Manus
  • Manum
  • Manus
  • Manui
  • Manum

Plural

  • Manus
  • Manus
  • Manus
  • Manuum
  • Manibus
  • Manibus

Fifth Declension[edit | edit source]

The fifth declension can be demonstrated using the word dies (day), and is as follows;

Singular

  • Dies
  • Dies
  • Diem
  • Diei
  • Diei
  • Die

Plural

  • Dies
  • Dies
  • Dies
  • Dierum
  • Diebus
  • Diebus
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