The Treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allies and Germany. It was signed on June 28, 1919 by the Allies and Germany.
The Terms of the Treaty[edit | edit source]
War Guilt (Article 231)[edit | edit source]
- This was the most controversal part of the treaty, as it said that Germany had to accept blame for starting the war, and was therefore wholly responsible for the destruction it caused. All the other parts of the treaty stem from this - for example, Germany would have to pay reparations to make the situation better. However, Germans felt they should not be punished for a war that they believed they did not start.
Loss of territory and colonies[edit | edit source]
- Alsace-Lorraine --> France (this reversed what had happened previously, when it was transfered to Germany in 1871)
- Eupen-Malmedy --> Belgium
- Much of Posen and W.Prussia --> Poland (new state). This formed the 'Polish corridor', and cut off E.Prussia from the rest of Germany, and left over 1million Germans in Poland.
- Danzig --> free city under League of Nations
- Memel --> Allies
- Saar --> 15 years international administration, then plebiscite. All Saar coal was to go to France.
- Upper Silesia and Schleswig --> plebiscites
- Germany forbidden to unite with Austria (Anschluss)
- Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania --> gain independance
- Remember that Sudetenland had not been a part of Germany before the war
- Overall, Germany lost:
- 13% territory
- 6 million people
- 26% coal
- 74% iron ore
- All of German colonies in Africa and in the Pacific were given to the Allies
Restrictions on the German armed forces[edit | edit source]
- Army limited to 100,000 men
- No conscription
- No tanks
- No airforce
- Only 6 battleships and smaller vessels
- 15,000 sailors
- No new ships over 10,000 tonnes
- No submarines
- Fortifications on Western border to be destroyed
- Rhineland to be demilitarised
Reparations[edit | edit source]
- Germany to pay cost of Allied occupation
- Germany to supply free coal to France, Italy and Belgium for 10 years
- Germamy to surrender all merchant ships over 1,600 tonnes
- Reparations set at £6.6bn by Reparations Commission to be paid in goods and cash. (132,000 million gold marks)
The League of Nations[edit | edit source]
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